**
PHIL 2340
Symbolic Logic I**

Fall, 2012

**Course Description**

This course will provide a basic understanding of elementary propositional and
predicate logic. Students will learn the syntax and semantics of first-order
languages; how to translate
between English and such languages; how to construct proofs in a
natural-deduction system for first-order logic; and how to show that an argument
is valid or invalid by finding a proof or a counterexample. An integral part of the
course will be working with the associated software bundled with our text: Tarski's
World, which provides an extremely vivid means of comparing sentences in logical notation
with models; Boole, a useful tool for constructing truth tables; Fitch, a tool for
constructing and evaluating proofs; and Submit, which will enable you to submit homework
exercises for online grading. **Caution**: this course will probably seem
easy at first, and if you keep up with the homework it should remain very manageable.
However, later material presupposes a thorough understanding of earlier material,
so it is *deadly* to fall behind.

**Text**

Jon Barwise and John Etchemendy, *Language, Proof, and Logic*, Second
Edition
(Stanford: CSLI Publications, 2011).

**Office Hours**

TR 8:30-10:30; MW 4:00 - 5:00.

I am usually in my office during office hours, but occasionally a meeting or another commitment prevents this. If you just drop by during office hours, you will probably find me in; if you want to see me at another time, or if you want to be certain I'll be in, we can set up an appointment.

**Requirements**

**Exams.** There will be three in-class examinations, worth 20% each. The
in-class exams are tentatively scheduled for Friday, February 10;
Monday, March 5;
and Wednesday, April 4. The cumulative final exam, worth 25%, will be on Friday,
May 4, at 12:00 noon.

**Paper Option.** If you wish, you can write an 8-10 page paper for the
class. The paper should apply the tools of symbolic logic to an area you are
interested in. In most cases, this will involve translating one or more
arguments into symbolic notation, determining whether they are valid or not, and
discussing the ways in which using the symbolic formulation was helpful and/or
unhelpful. More information about the paper is available
here. I will
replace your lowest in-class exam grade with your grade on the paper (assuming
the paper grade is higher than the lowest exam grade). You can turn in the paper
at any time during the semester through Monday, April 16. After that it will be
too late, so if you want to take advantage of this option, be sure to do it by
then!

**Homework.** I will assign regular homework problems which you will submit for online grading
(you should expect to have a homework assignment for nearly every class meeting).
It is possible to do these assignments in the campus computer labs, but it will
make things much more convenient if you have your own computer and an internet
connection. I will record homework grades and keep track of your average. Homework will count 15% of the final
grade.

In theory you should be able to get a near-perfect score on the homework assignments, because you can check your answers online as many times as you wish prior to submitting the homework. (In practice this rarely happens, however, as many students find some of the homework assignments quite difficult, especially later in the semester.) So doing the homework has the potential both to improve your overall average in the class, and also to improve your understanding of the material and therefore your performance on exams.

- While you are working on a homework assignment, you can have grade reports sent only to you. It is a good idea to use the online grading service (the "Grade Grinder") to check your work as you go along to make sure you haven't gotten off on the wrong track. However, don't have the grade report sent to me until you have completed the assignment!
- When you are finished with an assignment, i.e. you have made all the
changes you want to or have time to, make sure that you send the entire
assignment to the grader in one batch and have the grade report sent to me
(at my email address, cbrown@trinity.edu).
**Make certain that you include all of the problems for that assignment in a single submission to the Grade Grinder.**if you break up your submission into chunks, I will count only the first chunk. (However, if you do not complete the assignment, it is still a good idea to submit the problems you did complete with a report to me; a partially completed assignment will do much less damage to your average than a zero!) **In order to receive full credit, homework assignments must be submitted***prior to*the beginning of the class period for which they are due.**After the beginning of class on the due date, I will accept one further submission for partial credit.**All the problems from the assignment must be included in this second submission, even if you had them correct the first time. (So save your answers somewhere you can find them!) Your final grade on the assignment will be the average of the two submissions (the one before the due date and the one after). Thus, if you fail to submit a homework assignment prior to the due date and time, you can receive a maximum of half credit for that assignment.

**Schedule**

I have posted a detailed schedule on the web. Very roughly speaking, we will cover the first 14 chapters of the book at a pace of approximately one chapter per week. (Some chapters will take more time and some, especially the early chapters, will take less.) We will then examine a little of the material in Part III of the book, and some material not covered in the book, as a way of getting a glimpse of more advanced topics in logic, notably extensions of classical logic, suggested revisions of logic, and topics in metalogic.

**The Academic Honor Code**

You should make certain that you are familiar with the details of the Academic Honor Code, which all Trinity students are covered by. Students are required to pledge all written work that is submitted for a grade by writing, on the submitted work: “On my honor, I have neither given nor received any unauthorized assistance on this work,” followed by their signature. The pledge may be abbreviated “pledged” with a signature. If I suspect that the Honor Code has been violated, I am required to submit an allegation to the Honor Council, a student committee. After that, it is out of my hands: it is up to the Honor Council to determine whether a violation has occurred, and if so, what the penalty should be. The Honor Code prohibits faculty members from making their own determination, or even communicating about the allegation with the student involved. In my experience, the Honor Council has been at least as tough as I would have been on students found to have violated the code. For more details see the Honor Code web site.

Students are required to do their own homework in this class. You are welcome to seek advice from other students if you have trouble with the homework. (You will learn the material better if you have a serious stab at homework problems before seeking help, however.) However, even if you discuss homework problems with other students, you must write and submit your own assignment. In particular, submitting the same file as another student for online grading is a violation of academic integrity. You should be aware that the software we use for doing homework problems "stamps" each homework file with a unique identifier, and alerts me if two students submit files with the same identifier. (So don't share your homework files with other students, and don't submit another student's homework file, or a copy of it, as your own.)

You are also welcome, indeed encouraged, to study for exams in groups and to prepare for exams by trying out the sample exams I have placed online. (Notice that for each exam, I have placed at least one previous version of the exam online. I have also provided answer keys so you can check your answers on the sample exams.) Please do not consult other old exams that may still lurk in fraternity files or elsewhere. There should be plenty of study material available without using those!

Last update: January 10, 2012.

Curtis Brown | Symbolic Logic | Philosophy Department | Trinity University

cbrown@trinity.edu