scene towards the end of the film The Big Lebowski (TBL)
unmistakably illustrates the connection between the trickster and
detective work. The comedy
film describes the travails of the Dude, whose outsider life is
concerned with three things: drinking White Russians, smoking
marijuana, and bowling. The
Dude accidentally becomes involved in a kidnapping and the seedy world
of pornography producers and actors, thugs, loan sharks and violent
German nihilists. The Dude
is propelled along with the events of the kidnapping by outside forces
while his only concern is to get back to bowling.
The story has been described as, “a 1940s Raymond Chandler
whodunit on acid (Yost, 2003).”
one point, thugs working for Jackie Treehorn, a pornography producer,
have abducted the Dude (Coen & Coen, 1998, 1:15:40).
Treehorn questions the Dude about a missing woman, and then is
interrupted by a phone call. Treehorn
takes the call, writes down something on a pad of paper, tears off the
top sheet and leaves the room. Now
alone in the room, the Dude examines the notepad, picks up a pencil
and begins to rub its point on the notepad in an attempt to trace the
writing on Treehorn’s sheet. I
think: finally, the Dude is acting like a detective!
I actually feel a sense of relief after watching the Dude
sleepwalk through the mystery for so long.
And what did the Dude detect?
While talking on the phone, Treehorn doodled a human torso with
an enormous penis (Rowell, 2007, p. 350).
The Dude has essentially found the Trickster’s calling card
(i.e. a large penis, Hynes, 1993, P. 43).
of the trickster archetype are prevalent throughout the TBL and
these themes are also associated with the film’s fan following, the
Lebowski cult, which developed four years after the film was
released and has grown in popularity over time.
While general trickster themes pervade the film, the theme of
deception and the detection of deception unite the film with the fan
in the film itself, antagonists attempt to deceive others while the
protagonists attempt to detect this deception.
As an instance of Jungian synchronicity, the Lebowski cult has
grown in popularity as the United State’s culture has become more
deceptive and Americans have more of a need to detect deception.
film, written and directed by Joel and Ethan Coen, opened in the
spring of 1998 to mixed reviews (Travers, 1998).
Four years after the film was released, a cult following for
the film had grown large enough for the first fan convention, the Lebowski
fest (Green, Peskoe, Russell & Scott; 2007; Hodgkinson, 2005;
Stone, 2005). This cult
following is still strong ten years after the film was released (Lebowski
Fest, n.d. B; Robertson, 2006). Lebowski
fests are held in about a dozen cities each year (Green et al., 2007,
pp. 168-188) drawing attendees who number in the thousands (with one
fan traveling from Singapore to the New York City Lebowski fest;
Kesner, 2004). Articles
on the Lebowski fests have appeared in newspapers, such as the New
York Times (Edelstein, 2004) and the Wall Street Journal
(Yost, 2003). Many
internet sites sell t-shirts and action figures related to the
film (e.g. Viscosity Clothing Company, 2008). Such
t-shirts are simply quotes from TBL: “That rug tied the whole
room together, man.”, “Hey, careful, man, there's a beverage
here!”, or “I Don't Roll On Shabbas.”
In reference to the Little Lebowski Urban Achievers,
cultists wear green t-shirts with the word achiever stenciled
on the chest. At one
point, a large group of cultists wore these shirts on the game show, The
Price is Right, and one cultist was chosen to play the game
(Green, et al., 2007; Lebowski Fest, n.d. A).
Big Lebowski academic conference in 2006 was sponsored by the
University of Louisville and Indiana University (Green et al., 2007;
Morgenstern, 2006). The
conference, entitled, The
Lebowski Cult: An Academic Symposium,
was held in a Louisville bowling alley and featured papers on
scholarly topics a la Lebowski, such as Lacan, Freud,
information-seeking, ritual and masculinity (Green et al., 2007, pp.
is it about TBL which could spark such interest years after the
movie was released? In
examing the film itself, we see that two themeatic elements were
intentionally placed in the film: a homage to the Raymond Chandler
story, The Big Sleep, and the Gulf War.
Story: a Whodoneit on Acid.
one of the few interviews the Coens gave about TBL, Joel said,
regarding the Chandler/Big Sleep theme of the story they,
“wanted to do a Chandler kind of story - how it moves episodically,
and deals with the characters trying to unravel a mystery. As well as
having a hopelessly complex plot that's ultimately unimportant (Stone,
complex and unimportant plot involves the protagonist named Jeffrey
Lebowski -- but called the Dude -- a potbellied hippy living in Los
Angeles. Returning to his
apartment, the Dude discovers two thugs who demand money they believe
he owes to a “Mr Treehorn” (Coen & Coen, 1998, 00:03:48).
They physically intimate the Dude and one thug urinates on the
Dude’s living room rug. The
thugs realize that they have the wrong Jeffrey Lebowski and leave.
Dude goes to confront the other Jeffrey Lebowski[i],
the intended target of the thugs.
Jeffrey Lebowski appears to be a wealthy, philanthropic, stanch
conservative war hero. Jeffrey
Lebowski does not compensate the Dude for his rug, but the Dude’s
initiative creates two outcomes: first, the Dude is able to steal a
rug from Jeffrey Lebowski’s mansion and, second, Jeffrey Lebowski
asks the Dude to act as the ransom courier when Jeffrey Lebowski’s
young wife, Bunny, is kidnapped a few days later.
Dude’s bowling buddy, Walter, talks the Dude into taking him along
on the ransom drop, and then bullies the Dude into making the drop
according to his own plans. Walter’s
plan is to surprise the kidnappers, find Bunny (by “beating it
out” of the kidnappers) and then keep the ransom money.
The plan fails and the kidnappers do not receive the ransom.
Walter and the Dude’s response is, “fuck it, let’s go
bowling (Coen & Coen, 1998, 00:37:12).”
While bowling, the Dude’s car, with Jeffrey Lebowski’s
ransom money, is stolen.
the Dude’s initiative of stealing the rug bears another outcome: the
rug the Dude stole from Jeffery Lebowski’s mansion had sentimental
value to Jeffrey Lebowski’s adult daughter, Maude.
Maude and her assistants retrieve her rug from the Dude’s
apartment, and then Maude phones the Dude and asks him to visit her.
During the visit, Maude tells the Dude that her step-mother,
Bunny, is a porn actress (Coen & Coen, 1998, 00:35:40).
In a later meeting, Maude expresses her belief that Bunny was
not kidnapped and that Bunny’s porn co-star, Uli, is just pretending
to be the kidnapper (Coen & Coen, 1998, 01:02:40).
Lebowski tracks down the Dude and confronts the Dude about the ransom
drop. Trying to be
evasive, the Dude suggests that Bunny kidnapped herself to get money
to pay off her debts. In
response, Jeffrey Lebowski shows the Dude a severed toe he has
received from the kidnappers. Jeffrey
Lebowski tells the Dude that he has told the kidnappers that they can
get their money from the Dude (Coen & Coen, 1998, 00:52:39).
The Dude’s response is to take a bubble bath (surrounded by
candles) and smoke marijuana. During
the bath, the kidnappers (led by Uli) break into the Dude’s
apartment and threaten the Dude (Coen & Coen, 1998, 00:55:30).
police find the Dude’s car but not the missing ransom money.
After dropping a lit marijuana cigarette butt onto the
upholstery of his car, the Dude discovers a student’s history exam
stuck in the seat. The
Dude and Walter pay the student a visit hoping to find the money, but
that leads to a dead end. (Coen & Coen, 1998, 01:12:00).
shows up in the Dude’s apartment to have sex with the Dude (the Dude
happily consents). We
learn that Maude arranged their first meeting to evaluate the Dude’s
qualities for a special purpose of hers: she wishes to have a baby and
selected the Dude because he is unlikely to wish to share in
the rearing of the child. During
this assignation Maude reiterates that her father is not wealthy and
is living off her mother’s money, which she partially controls (Coen
& Coen, 1998, 01:30:35).
with the information supplied by Maude, the Dude thinks he has solved
the mystery. Jeffrey
Lebowski, living on a stipend controlled by his daughter, would have
been unable to raise a ransom. Therefore,
the briefcase given to the Dude from the Big Lebowski was a fake and
Jeffrey Lebowski wanted the kidnappers to kill Bunny (Coen & Coen,
1998, 01:35:26). The Dude
is only partially correct: Bunny shows up at Jeffrey Lebowski’s
mansion after returning from Palm Springs.
The film ends as the Dude is drinking at the bowling lane’s
bar looking forward to bowling in the league semi-finals.
order to understand the synchronistic connections to the Lebowski cult
we will need to review the film’s Gulf War theme.
The Gulf War
Coen Brothers admitted that the film is about the Gulf War:
What's the attraction of setting the film specifically in 1991?
Well, setting the film during the Gulf War was an opportunity to have
Walter gas about something-
That's the main reason. (Stone, 1998).
may make the Gulf War seem like a very trivial theme in the story.
However, this statement must be taken in context; the brothers
are being quixotic during this interview.
For example, immediately after saying this Joel adds,
“because just what is present day?”
At another point in the interview, Ethan, a former Princeton
philosophy major, when asked for his philosophy on filmmaking
answered, “Oooh-I don't have one. I wouldn't even know how to begin.
You've stumped me there. None that I've noticed. Drawing a blank on
this one.” And at other points of the interview, the Coens refuse to
answer questions because they consider the questions, “not
(2005) builds an excellent argument in support of the Gulf War as the
underlying theme of TBL. At
the beginning of the film the narrator sets the time of film by
stating that, “it was around the time of our problems with that
Saddam fellow (Coen & Coen, 1998, 00:02:18).” To cement the time
setting, 30 seconds later we see a television playing President G. W.
H. Bush’s speech, “This will not stand … This aggression against
setting of the Gulf War appears integral to the main theme in the
movie. During the
introduction of the Dude, the narrator states that the Dude was, “a
man for his time (Coen & Coen, 1998, 00:02:40)”, and then
identifies the time as the Gulf War.
In the third scene of the movie, when the Dude is ruminating
about his ruined rug, his friend Walter characterizes his advice by
quoting another G. W. H. Bush Gulf War speech, “draw a line in the
sand (Coen & Coen, 1998, 00:08:40).”
One scene later, when the Dude has his first meeting with
Jeffrey Lebowski, the Dude characterizes his own motives by repeating
the Bush line from the beginning of the movie, “This will not stand,
you know. This aggression
will not stand, man (Coen & Coen, 1998, 00:13:53).”
As if not to let us forget this theme, towards the end of the
film, Saddam Hussein is featured (in a dream sequence) working the
shoe rental counter at a bowling alley (Coen & Coen, 1998,
01:21:20). This appearance
links the Gulf War theme to the ubiquitous bowling theme in the movie.
(2005) sees TBL as attempting to think through the problem of
the violence of the Gulf War, and assimilate this wartime violence
into our national myth. However,
there is evidence that TBL is not just a working through
of violence as Comer suggests but a protest to the violence.
While the Dude is unemployed and without a career, his one
claim to fame is his protest activities as a college student: the Dude
was one of the authors of the Port Huron Statement and a member
of the original Seattle Seven (Coen & Coen, 1998, 01:28:06).
Both references are to actual events and groups from the
1960’s and 1970’s radical left (Dowd, n.d.; Haden & Flacks,
2002; Smith, 2000; University of Washington Libraries, n.d.).
At another point in the film, the Dude states that while in
college he spent most of his time occupying various administration
buildings and breaking into the ROTC (Coen & Coen, 1998,
00:11:48). The Dude is
identified as an anti-war radical.
We can conclude that TBL is, as Comer suggests, about
the Gulf War, and about protesting war.
Wars and Breaking Boundaries
that both the Coens state that a theme in the film was the Gulf War
and on the strength of Comer’s (2005) analysis, we can conclude that
the Gulf War is a major theme of TBL.
Whether intentionally or not on the part of the Coens, the
theme of the Gulf War is one opportunity which allows the trickster
archetype to find expression in the film.
trickster is a boundary dweller and a breaker of boundaries (Doty
& Hynes, 1993, p. 19-20) and the Gulf War was a border war begun
by a border crossing (F. Lewis, 1990).
Thus, the theme of the Gulf War, which was a major theme of the
film, is about boundary crossing – the purview of the trickster.
While Comer (2005) states that a theme in TBL is the
Gulf War, it would be more correct to say that this theme is about the
beginning of the war (Bush’s speech places the action of the film
after the invasion of Kuwait but before the war to liberate Kuwait).
Thus, the Gulf War theme is more of a theme of Iraq’s border
the association of the Gulf War theme with border crossing and border
crossing with the trickster archetype may be a tenuous set of links, TBL
contains strong examples of archetypal trickster border crossing.
Specifically, examples of boundaries being broken in trickster
ways (e.g. breaking taboos and customs) and examples of people who
live on the fringe of our society appear throughout TBL.
protagonist of the film, the Dude, is truly a boundary dweller who
lives on the edge of our society.
During our introduction to the Dude, he is shopping in a
supermarket dressed in a t-shirt, shorts, flip-flops and a bathrobe.
His hair and beard are long and unkempt.
It is night and he is wearing sunglasses (Coen & Coen,
1998, 00:02:18). When
Jeffrey Lebowski asks the Dude if he is employed, the Dude responses,
“Employed?” as if surprised or confused by the question (Coen
& Coen, 1998, 00:13:10). The
Dude’s car is rust covered and his apartment is mostly empty space.
The Dude describes his life as driving around, bowling and
having acid flashbacks (Coen & Coen, 1998, 01:29:00).
Dude lives in the liminal world of the Trickster.
One of the most salient broken boundaries, however, is in the
nature of the story itself.
most salient broken boundary in the film is that of the narrator.
The film begins with a cowboy band playing the song,
“Tumbling Tumbleweeds” as we see a tumbleweed blown across a
desert setting. The
tumbleweed tops a rise and we see modern day Los Angeles (Coen &
Coen, 1998, 00:01:30). As
the music continues and we see the tumbleweed blow through empty Los
Angeles streets, the narrator begins to set up the story.
The narrator, from his speech and use of words, is identified
as a cowboy. Ethan Coen
admits that the choice of the cowboy narrator is a boundary crossing:
“The Western theme’s just another thing that has nothing to do
with anything but just seemed right next to the other things
(Robertson, 1998, p.44).” As
Ethan Coen further explained, “We always like those devices –
narration, voice-over. Also
it’s a Marlow thing, since all the Chandler novels are told in his
first-person narration. But
it would be too corny just to have the Dude narrating, you know
(Robertson, 1998, p.44)?” More
boundary crossing occurs when the narrator appears in scenes with the
Dude. Sam Elliot plays the
narrator and is dressed as an old-fashion western cowboy.
The presence of a cowboy in a modern Los Angeles bowling lane
is never explained. It is
an anachronism treated as normal.
This is an example of the trickster narrative (Doueihi,
1993; Rowland, 2006). Doueihi
(1993) holds that the features we commonly ascribe to the trickster
– contradictoriness, complexity, deceptiveness, trickery – can
also be features of the language of the story itself.
The purpose of this is to open our minds to spontaneous
transformations of reality that may allow us to see the world in an
open and creative way.
to the boundary living and crossing described above, but more
concrete, is the violation of sexual and excretory taboos.
Just as the trickster is impelled to violate all taboos sexual
or scatological (Hynes, 1993, p. 42), TBL is similarly driven.
famous for its use of sexual language.
Martin & Renegar (2007) report that the word “fuck” and
its variants are used 281 times in the film.
In a one minute scene, Walter screams, “This is what happens
when you fuck a stranger in the ass, Larry,” over seven times (Coen
& Coen, 1998, 01:11:53). At
their first meeting, Bunny Lebowski propositions the Dude by saying,
“I’ll suck your cock for a thousand dollars (Coen & Coen,
1998, 00:16:02).” Maude’s
first exchange with the Dude is, “My art has been commended as being
strongly vaginal. Which
bothers some men. The word
itself make some men uncomfortable.
… Vagina.” In
her next line, Maude refers to the male organ as a rod, dick or
Johnson (Coen & Coen, 1998, 02:02:40). During
a one minute scene, the Dude’s rug is referred to have been peed,
urinated, pissed, or micturated upon seven times (Coen & Coen,
penis and the detached penis are common trickster themes (Hynes, 1993)
and are themes in TBL. As
described in the introduction, when the Dude attempts to detect what
Treehorn has written on his notepad, the Dude finds a drawing of a
human torso with an enormous penis.
A minor role (Green et al., 2007, p. 42) in the film is a
bowling rival of the protagonists named Jesus Quintana.
The actor wears a “huge codpiece (Green, et al., 2007, p.
42)” and a skintight jumpsuit in the movie.
In another scene Quintana suggestively polishes his bowling
ball (holding it in front of his crotch) and then erotically licks the
ball (Coen & Coen, 1998, 00:29:45).
This is not the only time bowling equipment represents male
sexual anatomy. In the
Dude’s micky-induced dream two bowling balls and one bowling pin are
positioned to mimic testicles and a penis (Coen & Coen, 1998,
01:18:17). Finally, a
recurring theme is of the Dude’s penis in danger of being cut or
bitten off. One scene
begins with the kidnappers throwing a marmot into the Dude’s bathtub
(at groin level) and ends with the kidnappers threatening to cut off
the Dude’s Johnson (which the German kidnappers pronounce as ‘Chohnson’).
Later, during the Dude’s dream, the Dude is chased by the
kidnappers with oversized scissors (Coen & Coen, 1998, 01:23:26).
regarding breaking taboos, themes of defecation and urination are ever
prevalent. The driving
force of the film is the Dude seeking redress for his urine-stained
rug (Green et al., 2007; Robertson1998).
In addition, a vagrant used the Dude’s stolen car as a toilet
(Coen & Coen, 1998, 00:56:52), and Treehorn’s thugs repeatedly
shoved the Dude’s head into a toilet.
setting of TBL is the Gulf War and by association, the setting
is one of boundaries and the breaking of boundaries.
The main character is a boundary dweller, the narrative itself
plays jokes on us, and dirty talk fills the narrative.
This alone would be enough to state confidently that TBL
embodies the trickster archetype.
However, the cast of TBL is a host of tricksters.
of the main characters in TBL are tricksters.
They are tricksters in the sense that they are deceiving others
or they are the two fool-detectives, Walter and the Dude, who are
attempting (in spite of themselves) to detect the deceptions.
antagonists of TBL are trickster-deceivers.
Jeffrey Lebowski conveys the impression of a self-made
millionaire, but he is living on his deceased wife’s fortune (Coen
& Coen, 1998, 01:30:00). It
is also unclear what his motives and actions are in attempting to
secure the release of his wife, Bunny, from the kidnappers.
Did he actually give the Dude one-million dollars or was the
case empty of money? Fawn
Knutson (a.k.a. Bunny Lebowski) was hiding in L. A. from her parents
in Minnesota (Coen & Coen, 1998, 01:33:35) and most likely hiding
her career as an actress in pornographic movies from her husband.
Uli, the “kidnapper,” was attempting to extort ransom money
from Jeffery Lebowski even though Uli was not holding Bunny prisoner.
He went as far as to cut off a female friend’s toe to trick
Jeffrey Lebowski (Coen & Coen, 1998, 01:35:05).
Finally, Maude Lebowski tricked the Dude into conceiving a
child with her. It is not
surprising that many characters in TBL are trickster/deceivers.
TBL is a mystery/detective story and without deceivers,
there would be no need to detect.
a mystery need deceivers, then it also needs detectives.
In TBL, the role of detective falls on Walter and the
Dude. One of the strongest
embodiments of the trickster archetype in the film is the
undifferentiated, primal trickster-like qualities of the two main
characters, the Dude and Walter. Individually,
the Dude and Walter are the undifferentiated fools and together they
make up the archetypical pair of fools.
first see the Dude when he is shopping (in his bathrobe) for
half-and-half for his White Russians.
Dress is not the only social convention he ignores in this
scene: he casually opens cartons of half-and-half and tastes it.
When he finally goes to the check out of the store, he has
half-and-half on his mustache (Coen & Coen, 1998, 00:03:15).
It seems that the Dude does not intend to insult others with
his flaunting of social convention but this is due to the Dude’s
overwhelmingly passive nature (as also noted by Comer, 2005).
Thus, the Dude’s border crossing is motivated by his laziness
(Martin & Renegar, 2007, p. 307) or we could say lack of
self-consciousness, a characteristic of the trickster (Jung, 1969, p.
trait of the trickster exhibited by the Dude is that of
situation-inversion (Hynes, 1993, p. 37).
The Dude is able to invert power hierarchies and switch from
being powerless to powerful (Martin & Renegar, 2007, pp. 306-307).
When meeting Jeffrey Lebowski, the Dude introduces himself as
“His Dudeness or El Duderino.” Thus, the deadbeat Lebowski is
elevating himself with royal titles when with the millionaire Lebowski.
At two points in the film the Dude awkwardly uses the phrase,
“the royal we.” As
another form of power equalization, instead of showing respect by use
of the term, “Sir,” the Dude liberally peppers his speech with the
word, “man.” He uses
this term when speaking to everyone, including police officers,
Jeffrey Lebowski and the chief of police.
By use of this language, the Dude is constantly deflating power
and equalizing status differentials.
Finally, in the Dude’s second dream, Saddam Hussein gives the
Dude a pair of sliver and gold bowling shoes.
The world leader is now the servant to the Dude who receives
shoes made of precious metals.
other undifferentiated fool, Walter, is also a situation-inverter but
in a much different way. Walter
is unable to keep his anger under control (Comer, 2005, p. 112) and
turns many normal situations into abnormal or dangerous situations.
For example, in response to a scoring disagreement in a bowling
game, Walter pulls a gun on fellow bowler (Coen & Coen, 1998,
00:18:01) and in response to a waitress’ comment about his cursing
Walter brings up the issue of patriotic freedom and that his friends
died in the muck in Vietnam (Coen & Coen, 1998, 00:53:50).
While the Dude lacks self-consciousness due to his passive
nature, Walter seems to lack self-consciousness due to his anger
the Dude (the passive pacifist) and Walter (the Vietnam veteran with
anger issues) make an unlikely pair.
In fact, the Dude and Walter together are a classic pair of
fools (Willeford, 1969, pp.39-40), which illustrates the trickster’s
oppositional nature (Hynes, 1993, p. 34; Levi-Strauss, 1963, p. 224).
and the Dude’s only common interest seem to be bowling, but beyond
that, Walter and the Dude are close friends.
When something happens the Dude first calls Walter (Coen &
Coen, 1998, 01:31:00) and they know intimate details of each other’s
lives (Coen & Coen, 1998, 00:17:17; 01:36:40).
A perfect illustration of the oppositional nature of the pair
of fools is the ransom drop scene (Coen & Coen, 1998, 00:32:20).
In this scene, the Dude calls Walter with the intention (we
assume) of Walter assisting him with the ransom drop while Walter
enters the scene with the intention of manipulating the situation so
that they can keep the ransom for themselves.
As their car comes closer to the drop point, both are talking
past each other because both assume a different plan.
It is unclear from the film whether Walter’s plan was doomed
to fail due to Walter’s incompetence or failed because of the lack
of coordination between the pair of fools.
Dude and Walter, the pair of fools, working against and off each
other, drive much of the plot of TBL.
For example, Walter talks the Dude into going to Jeffrey
Lebowski to demand a replacement rug, which sets the story and mystery
in motion. Walter’s
involvement with the ransom drop keeps the story open and ongoing.
The Dude and Walter, individually, are barely conscious; and,
together, are opposites that often cancel each other out.
These two characteristics are what lead to their downfall when
they attempt to act as detectives.
most of TBL, the Dude and Walter, the pair of fools, sleepwalk
through the mystery. However,
there are four instances when these tricksters attempt to take the
initiative and act as detectives.
These four scenes are very representative of the mystery genre
-- attempting to outsmart kidnappers, interrogating a suspect,
searching for clues, and confronting and exposing a deceiver.
However, in each of these cases, the fool’s initiative leads
to either disaster or nothing. The
Dude only solves the mystery with clues obtained as byproducts of his
appetites and self-interests.
first disaster comes when the pair of fools attempt the ransom drop,
in this scene, their oppositional motives (or possibly Walter’s lack
of self-awareness of his own abilities) lead to disaster.
One consequence of the botched ransom drop is the second scene
when the fools try to act like detectives, during their visit to
little Larry’s house. Walter
is able to track down the student who left his exam in the Dude’s
car and again plans to act proactively and recover the stolen ransom.
Walter dresses in a shirt and tie and, with the Dude, visits
the student’s house. In
front of the house, they see a new Corvette that Walter incorrectly
assumes the boy bought with the money stolen from the Dude’s car.
Walter and the Dude present themselves in a way that causes
Larry’s mother to assume that they are police officers.
The pair then begin to question Larry.
Walter opens up his briefcase and pulls out the homework, in a
clear plastic bag, and asks him, “Is this your homework, Larry?”
Larry stares mutely. Walter
questions Larry repeatedly with again no response from Larry.
Walter announces that “it’s time for Plan B” and leaves
the house, takes a tire iron from the Dude’s car and begins to
destroy the Corvette parked outside the house, all the while yelling,
“This is what happens when you fuck a stranger in the ass!”
A neighbor comes running to protect his new Corvette and
proceeds to attack the Dude’s car in retaliation.
Walter and the Dude leave with no new information on the
of these two scenes could have appeared in traditional detective
stories. If Walter would
have questioned Larry once, realized that this was a “cold lead,”
and left, then the scene would have fit perfectly in a traditional
mystery. If Walter would
have only taken one or two swings at the Corvette, noticed that Larry
was unmoved by this method of persuasion and left (perhaps Larry is a hardboiled
character), then again this scene would have fit perfectly into a
traditional mystery. What
makes these scenes comedy and not mystery is the repetition of
Walter’s lines. The
line, “Is this your homework, Larry,” appears over eight times in
one minute and Walter yells, “This is what happens when you fuck a
stranger in the ass!” over seven times in the same time period.
A detective should persevere on a case, but Walter’s foolish
lack of self-awareness (of others’ responses and his own abilities)
third situation, where the fool attempts to act as a detective, is
described in the introduction. Left
alone, the Dude attempts to trace the notes Treehorn took on a notepad
during a phone conversation. This
is the one situation where the detective/fool does not cause disaster.
The detective is very conscious of what they should be doing.
However, this is the exception that proves the rule: how will
the Trickster respond when the fool acts wise?
The Trickster himself directly intervenes and plays a joke on
the fool who is trying to be a detective.
the Dude and Walter go to confront Jeffrey Lebowski with their guesses
concerning the ransom money that Jeffrey Lebowski may or may not have
given the Dude. This could
have been a traditional mystery denouement from Chandler, Hammett,
Doyle or Christie. The
Dude accuses Jeffrey Lebowski:
thought Bunny'd been kidnapped and you could use it as a pretext to
make some money disappear. All
you needed was a sap to pin it on, and you'd just met me.
You thought, hey, a deadbeat, a loser, someone the square
community won't give a shit about.
(Coen & Coen, 1998, 01:37:37).
Lebowski then agrees with the Dude by saying, “Well?
Aren’t you?” Jeffrey
Lebowski has been caught in his lies and in mystery-story fashion
admits to his crime.
this were the end of the scene, it could have been a classic
denouement from the mystery genre.
However, Walter’s foolish lack of self-awareness and
inability to control his anger again leads to failure and comedy.
Walter rages against Jeffrey Lebowski and accuses him of being
a phony millionaire and a phony paraplegic.
Walter then pulls Jeffrey Lebowski out of his wheelchair,
Jeffrey Lebowski then falls to the floor and cries (Coen & Coen,
1998, 01:39:01). While the
Dude was correct in his accusations and thus gained the initiative,
Walter’s incorrect assumption embarrassed the pair and squandered
the fool’s intentional actions lead to failure or he is tricked
himself, then how does the fool solve the mystery?
In the Dude’s case, it is through the unintentional
consequences of his selfish actions.
For example, his self-centered act of going to see Jeffrey
Lebowski with the expectation of demanding a new rug is what ensures
the Dude’s involvement in the rest of the mystery.
In addition, stealing the rug from Jeffrey Lebowski’s mansion
leads to his meetings with Maude Lebowski.
During these meetings, the Dude learns of Jeffrey Lebowski’s
lack of wealth and dissatisfaction with Bunny.
This information allows the Dude to develop what may be an
accurate guess as to what was going on.
the failed ransom drop, the Dude and Walter selfishly go bowling.
This leads to the kidnappers sending the toe to Jeffrey
Lebowski, who then forces the Dude into continuing his involvement in
the mystery and thus the motivation for the trip to little Larry’s
house. The Dude, in
attempting to simultaneously drive and smoke marijuana finds Larry’s
school work and gives the fools the means of finding little Larry.
TBL, we see the characteristics of the trickster archetype:
in the Gulf War/border crossing theme, in the background
elements of the story, in the transgression of social taboos and in
the characters themselves. This
theme also extends to the Lebowski Cult.
In order to describe this connection, we must return to the
and the Lebowski Cult: Two Wars with Iraq
theoretical approach to the trickster is that it is a Jungian
archetype (Jung, 1969) and thus may serve as the focus of
synchronistic events. According to Jung, synchronicities occur when archetypes
in the collective unconscious come into play and provide meaningful
connections between acausal events (Jung, 1971).
Since archetypes in the collective unconscious exist outside of
time, synchronous events may appear in unusual time sequences, as if
one event predicts another.
While one might describe such an occurance as precognition
it is not, because the
term precognition implies a causal chain of events.
written in the early 1990’s during the Clinton administration.
This was a prosperous time for the American economy and the
United States was in no large scale militrary conflicts (Comer, 2005).
And yet, during this time period the Coen brothers decided to
write a film script set during, about and critical of (Martin &
Renegar, 2007, p. 301) the Gulf War.
TBL then spawns a cult following four years after its
release (the first Lebowski fest was held on October 12, 2002;
Green et al., 2007, p. 3). The
presence of this cult following four years after the film was released
suggests that the film resonated with people at that time. The
beginning of the Lebowski cult coincides with the build up to the
Iraqi War. Is this
coincidence or synchronicity?
order to answer this question, I must describe the Gulf and Iraq wars.
These descriptions are general characterizations of the wars
and I do not intend to draw definitive conclusions about the wars.
In addition, my intention is to be descriptive of how some
Americans view the two wars and not to proscriptively espouse a
political point of view.
Gulf War (1990-1991) was undertaken in direct response to Iraq’s
invasion of its southern neighbor, Kuwait.
Thus, the Gulf War was generally seen as justified and was
conducted with support from the United Nations (P. Lewis, 1990).
The Gulf War was fought with less than 300 American lives lost
and at a cost of $61 to $71 billion (CNN, 2001).
As of April 2008, costs of the Iraq War tally to (2003-
present) 4,058 American dead and in March of 2008 the Pentagon placed
the to-date cost at $600 billion (Herszenhorn, 2008).
rationale for waging the Iraq War has been significantly criticized.
The Iraq War Resolution (H. Res. 114, 2002), after being
approved by the House of Representatives and Senate, was signed into
law on October 16, 2002 (two days after the first Lebowski fest) by
President G. W. Bush. This
resolution authorized force against Iraq for several reasons,
including the threat to the U.S. posed by Iraq’s weapons of mass
destruction program and that Iraq was harboring known members of al-Qaeda.
However, the CIA's Iraq Survey Group concluded that even though Saddam Hussein had
intentions to build weapons of mass destruction, he did not have the
chance to do so (Borger, 2004; MSNBC, 2005).
Regarding the second issue, members
of the 9/11 commission (National Commission on Terrorist Attacks enpaneled by
President G. W. Bush) found
"no credible evidence" that Iraq was involved in the
September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks carried out by al-Qaeda
hijackers, and they concluded that there was "no collaborative
relationship" between Iraq and Osama bin Laden (CNN.com, 2004;
Pincus & Milbank, 2004).
above inconsistencies between fact and White House Policy may have
been due to honest mistakes. However,
in 2005, the Downing Street Memo was leaked to the press (Pincus
& Milbank, 2005). This
memo, from British intelligence to Prime Minister Blair, dated July
23, 2002 said that, “Bush wanted to remove Saddam, through military
action, justified by the conjunction of terrorism and WMD [weapons of
mass destruction]. But the intelligence and facts were being fixed
around the policy." If
the validity of the Downing Street Memo is to be accepted, then
one can conclude that the Bush White House deceived the American
people into supporting the Iraq War.
Many individuals and organizations have made such conclusions
(e.g. Center for Public Integrity, n.d.; Conyers, 2005; Iraq Veterans
Against the War, 2008). To
summarize this view of the rationale for the Iraq War, the Bush
Administration deceived the public with false information in order to
obtain the public’s compliance.
war is symbolized in TBL? Jeffrey
Lebowski, who bears a resemblance to Dick Cheney (Martin & Renegar,
2007, p. 301), lies to the Dude to gain the Dude’s compliance.
This deception on Jeffrey Lebowski’s part is staged for
personal gain. TBL
bears more of a resemblance to the Iraq War than the Gulf War.
In both TBL and the Iraq War, evidence was created and
falsehoods told in order to deceive and manipulate people.
Since 2002 (the beginning of the deception about the Iraq War
and the first Lebowski Fest) America has been, as the Dude is,
struggling against and becoming cognizant of deceptions that powerful
others have imposed upon us.
must assume that the Coens had no knowledge of the future and that
they were writing a film based upon the Gulf War.
However, with the trickster involved with their script (the
deceivers in the story, the pair of fools, the other references to
trickster qualities) the Coens had opened the door to Trickster.
With this archetype in play, synchronicity could have crafted a
story more appropriate to a future war, than the war the Coens
Lebowski cult’s existence and the reason the cult flourished four
years after the movie was released is that TBL became
meaningful during the build up to and the waging of the Iraq War – events
which are thematically described in TBL.
Jeffery Lebowski, a Dick Cheney look-a-like and conservative
Republican, deceives others so they will act for his benefit.
The Coens -- by the coincidence of combining the elements of a
story set during the Gulf War, a Chandler-like mystery story of
deceivers and detectives, and the war-protester character of the Dude
-- produced a film that held more meaning for a future audience than
the audience that existed when they wrote and made the film.
This future audience would be an audience that would need to
detect the deception of a trickster in the context of a war with Iraq.
two common themes connecting TBL and the Lebowski cult are
deception and the detection of deception, and a war with Iraq.
Connecting these two themes across the film and the fan cult is
the trickster-archetype inspired synchronicity.
In the center of all of this is the Dude.
Recall that the Dude was a war protester in college, an author
of the Port Huron Statement and a member of the Seattle Seven
(the Seattle Eight; Dowd, n.d.; who were arrested and served sentences
for their part in an anti-Vietnam War protest).
The Port Huron Statement is the founding manifesto of
the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) from which the
“authentic spirit of the Sixties radicalism issued (Haden &
Flacks, 2002, p. 18).” In
writing a fortieth anniversary retrospective on the document, the main
authors of the Port Huron Statement, Tom Haden and Dick Flacks
(2002), begin the essay by referring to TBL and say:
don’t remember the “dude” being there, but it’s gratifying
that the founding manifesto … still lives on in the nostalgia and
imagination of so many (p. 18).
the Statement itself, they write:
today, 1962 was a time when many students were waking up, but the vast
majority were smothered in apathy.
We couldn’t resist … war … without first piercing this
freezing indifference bred by affluence [and] conformity (p. 19).
TBL identifies the Dude with the early stages of the Sixties’
protest movement and a document that addressed the nation’s apathy
towards the war. Due to
the Iraq War, the nation is in a similar situation of war and public
apathy. And as Hayden and
Flacks say, TBL has placed (in name, at least) the Port
Huron Statement in the minds of our current generation.
the trickster archetype in TBL has led us on a wide-ranging
journey from the Iraq War to The Big Sleep.
Looking ahead, I would like to address two areas of future
interest, the trickster and detective, and the Lebowski cult.
warns us that in viewing the trickster we must be careful:
impression one gets in perusing these various trickster cycles is that
one must distinguish carefully between his consciously willed creative
activities and the benefactions that comes to mankind incidentally and
accidentally through the Trickster’s activities (Radin, 1972, p.
feel that applying Radin’s remarks to the detective clearly
summarizes my view on the trickster and the detective in TBL:
must distinguish carefully between the trickster’s consciously
willed detection and the clues that come accidentally through the
have described how the Dude and Walter, our trickster-detectives, were
incompetent at finding clues in the mystery and how intentional plans
to manipulate the situation led to utter disaster.
The Dude was able to solve the mystery only as an accidental
outcome of his own desires.
view of the trickster-detective from TBL suggests an intriguing
question. TBL is a
comedy based upon a classic mystery novel (The Big Sleep).
What elements of my analysis are due to the film being a comedy
and which elements are due to the film’s basic narrative structure
(a mystery)? For example,
in the classic detective story TBL is based upon, The Big
Sleep (Chandler, 1988), Marlow is hired to help Carmen but in the
end discovers that she probably killed Regan.
Carmen loses her mind and is placed in an institution.
Thus, the result is not helpful to Carmen.
In another classic detective story, The Maltese Falcon
(Hammett, 1989), the bird statue is a fake.
Thus, we see that these non-comic detectives are tricked by
their cases and that the detectives’ initiatives often lead to
useless or counter-intended ends. Is
Marlow a fool-detective also? Such
questions are beyond the scope of a paper on TBL.
Lebowski cult has grown in scope, popularity and scale since its
beginning in 2002. Why?
My answer is because of the synchronistic connections between TBL
and the Iraq War, the film resonates with the zeitgeist.
There is another answer to this question, TBL contains
elements of carnival (Martin & Renegar, 2007) and thus lends
itself to the carnival-like activities at a Lebowski fest.
At Lebowski fests people drink White Russians, dress up in
costumes and dance. While
not officially part of the 2002 Lebowski fest, the first fest was held
at a bowling lane located amid strip clubs (Green et al., 2007, p.
168). However, this theory
does not explain why it took four years for the carnival to catch on.
The Iraq War/Synchronicity theory offered in this paper fits
the timing of events much better and is more meaningful.
second possible approach to the Lebowski cult is empirical.
Over the last decade, some researchers have published empirical
articles on fan cults. For
example, Obst, Zinkiewicz & Smith (2002) examined the
psychological sense of community among science fiction fandom at Aussiecon
3. Such an examination
of the Lebowski fandom may be interesting.
Or, a study related to this paper’s interests could
empirically examine Lebowski fans’ political attitudes.
Are Lebowski fans more wary of being deceived by the government
and do they hold more negative attitudes about the Iraq War than
non-fans? Are they more
likely to protest the war? Such
an empirical approach may detect whether Lebowski cultists are just
there for the party (carnival) or if they are there to seek the
fellowship of others who wish to drink White Russians, bowl and wake
up to our culture’s apathy towards the Iraq War.
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TBL is a story about mistaken identity.
Thus, writing about TBL can be confusing.
I will refer to the Dude as the Dude and the millionaire
Jeffrey Lebowski as Jeffrey Lebowski.
Dr William Ashton earned his Ph.D. in
Social Psychology from Miami (Ohio) University by examining
gender differences in social support seeking. He has taught
courses in social psychology, I/O psychology, personality
psychology and Jungian Psychology, and has worked as a community
organizer and as the director of a non-profit leadership
development organization. He is currently an assistant professor
and the director of the Honors Program at York College, City
University of New York.
Dr Barbara Ashton received her Ph.D. in
Mathematics (Hyperspace Topology) from Virginia Tech. She has
taught Calculus and Analysis, and designed and taught courses on
the mathematics of Frank Lloyd Wright’s architecture, and
sacred mathematics. She is currently working on a paper entitle,
“Cross-Stitch and the Least Path Problem,” and is an
associate professor at the Borough of Manhattan Community
College, City University of New York.