Seminars require advanced work both in the classroom and in the library. Classes are devoted to common readings and are designed to help the student master the major secondary works and the research methods appropriate to the topic; work in the library is to be devoted to the development of individual topics, research, and writing. The outcome of a seminar is a major research paper that represents the student's contribution to the broader historical debates within the particular field. Students may take a second seminar with the same course number if the topic offered under that number is different. Prerequisite: Senior standing or consent of instructor.