Paula Hertel, Ph.D.

Professor of Pyschology, Trinity University []

I am foremost a cognitive psychologist who happens to investigate the cognitive causes, correlates, and consequences of emotional disorders. My interest in emotional disorders developed as a consequence of using depression as a special set of circumstances for testing more general principles of memory.




Grol, M., Hertel, P. T., Koster, E. H. W., & De Raedt, R. (2015). The effects of rumination induction on attentional breadth for self-related information. Clinical Psychological Science, 3, 607-618. DOI: 10.1177/2167702614566814

Daches, S., Mor, N, & Hertel, P. (2015). Rumination: Cognitive consequences of training to inhibit the negative. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2015.01.010. 

Hertel, P. T., & Hayes, J. A. (2015). Distracted by cues for suppressed memories. Psychological Science. 26, 775-783.

De Raedt, R., Hertel, P., & Watkins, P. (2015). Mechanisms of repetitive thinking [Special Section]. Clinical Psychological Science, 3, 568-573.

Vrijsen, J. N., Hertel, P. T., & Becker, E. S. (2016). Practicing emotionally biased retrieval affects mood and establishes biased recall a week later. Cognitive Therapy and Research, DOI: 10.1007/s10608-016-9789-6

Hertel, P., Maydon, A., Cottle, J., & Vrijsen, J. (2017). Cognitive bias modification: Retrieval practice to simulate and oppose ruminative memory biases. Clinical Psychological Science, 5, 122-130.DOI: 10.1177/2167702616649366

Hamilton, K. A., McIntyre, K. P., & Hertel, P. T. (2016). Judging knowledge in the digital age: The role of external-memory organization. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 30, 1080-1087.

Sacchet, M, Levy, B., Hamilton, J., Maksimovskiy, A., Hertel, P, …Gotlib, I. H. (2017). Cognitive and neural consequences of memory suppression in Major Depressive Disorder. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience, 17, 77-93.

Hertel, P., Maydon, A., Ogilvie, A., & Mor, N. (2018). Ruminators (unlike others) fail to show suppression-induced forgetting on indirect tests of memory.  Clinical Psychological Science, 6, 872-881.

Vrijsen, J. N., Dainer-Best, J., Witcraft, S. M., Hertel, P. T., Beevers, C. G., Becker, E. S., & Smits, J. A. J. (2019). Effect of cognitive bias modification-memory on depressive symptoms and autobiographical memory: Two independent studies in high-ruminating and dysphoric samples. Cognition and Emotion, 33, 288-304.

Daches, S., Mor, N., & Hertel, P. (2019). Training to inhibit the negative affects subsequent rumination and memory. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 43, 1018-1027.

Hertel, P., Herrera, P., & Shamapant, P. (2020).  Rumination: Practicing retrieval of autobiographical memories. Cognitive Therapy and Research10.1007/s10608-020-10118-z

2010 - 2014

Hertel, P. T., & McDaniel, L. (2010). The suppressive power of positive thinking: Aiding suppression-induced forgetting in repressive coping. Cognition and Emotion, 24, 1239-1249.

Hertel, P. T., & Brozovich, F. (2010). Cognitive Habits and Memory Distortions in Anxiety and Depression. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19, 155-160.

LeMoult, J., Hertel, P. T., & Joormann, J. (2010). Training the forgetting of negative material: The role of active suppression and the relation to stress reactivity. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24, 365-375.

Salemink, E., Hertel, P., & Mackintosh, B. (2010). Interpretation training influences memory for prior interpretations. Emotion, 10, 903-910.

Tran, T., Hertel, P. T., & Joormann, J. (2011). Cognitive bias modification: Induced interpretive biases affect memory. Emotion, 11, 145-152.

Hertel, P. T., Vasquez, E., Benbow, A., & Hughes, M. (2011). Recollection is impaired by the modification of interpretation bias. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 120, 902-910.

Hertel, P. T., & Mathews, A. (2011). Cognitive bias modification:  Past perspectives, current findings, and future applications. Perspectives on Psychological Science. 6, 521-536.

Hertel, P. T., Large, D., Stück, E. D., & Levy, A. (2012). Suppression-induced forgetting on a free-association test. Memory, 20, 100-109.

Hertel, P. T., Benbow, A. A., & Geraerts, E. (2012). Brooding deficits in memory: Focusing attention improves subsequent recall. Cognition and Emotion, 26, 1516-1525.

Stephens, E., Braid, A., & Hertel, P. T. (2013). Suppression-induced reduction in the specificity of autobiographical memory. Clinical Psychological Science, 1, 163-169.

Hertel, P. T., Holmes, M., & Benbow, A. (2013). Interpretive habit is strengthened by cognitive bias modification. Memory, 7, 737-746.

Mor, N., Hertel, P. T., Ngo, T. A., Shcahar, T., & Redak, S. (2014). Interpretation bias characterizes trait rumination. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 4, 57-73.

Hertel, P. T., Mor, N., Ferrari, C., Hunt, O., & Agrawal, N. (2014). Looking on the dark side: Rumination and cognitive bias modification. Clinical Psychological Science. 2, 714-726.


Hertel, P. T., & Calcaterra, G. (2005). Intentional forgetting benefits from thought substitution. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12, 484-489.

Joormann, J., Hertel, P. T., Brosovich, F., & Gotlib, I. (2005). Remembering the good, forgetting the bad: Intentional forgetting of emotional material in depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 640-648.

Hertel, P. T., & El-Messidi, L. (2006). Am I blue? Depressed mood and the consequences of self focus for the interpretation and recall of ambiguous words. Behavior Therapy, 37, 259-268.

Hertel, P. T. (2007). Impairments in inhibition or cognitive control in psychological disorders. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 12, 149-153.

Hertel, P. T., & Mahan, A. (2008). Depression-related differences in learning and forgetting responses to unrelated cues. Acta Psychologica, 127, 636-644.

Hertel, P. T., Brozovich, F., Joormann, J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2008). Biases in interpretation andmemory in Generalized Social Phobia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117, 278-288.

Joorman, J., Hertel, P. T., LeMoult, J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2009). Training forgetting of negative material in depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118, 34-43.

2000 - 2004

Hertel, P. T., & Parks, C. (2002). Emotional episodes facilitate word recall.Cognition and Emotion, 16, 685-694.

Hertel, P. T., Mathews, A., Peterson, S., & Kintner, K. (2003). Transfer of training emotionally biased interpretations. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 17, 775-784.

Hertel, P.T., & Gerstle, M. (2003). Depressive deficits in forgetting. Psychological Science,14, 573-578.


Before 2000

Rude, S. S., Hertel, P. T., Jarrold, W., Covich, J., & Hedlund, S. (1999). Remembering to remember: A difficulty for depressed individuals? Cognition and Emotion, 13, 267-276.

Hertel, P. T. (1998). Relation between rumination and impaired memory in dysphoric moods.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 166-172.

Hertel, P. T. (1997). On the contribution of deficient cognitive control to memory impairment in depression. Cognition and Emotion, 11, 569-583.

Hertel, P. T., & Knoedler, A. J. (1996). Solving problems by analogy:The benefits and detriments of hints and depressed moods. Memory & Cognition, 24, 16-25.

Hertel, P. T.(1994). Depression and memory:Are impairments remediable by attentional control? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 3, 190-193.

Anooshian, L. J., & Hertel, P. T. (1994). Emotionality in free recall:A case of language specificity in bilingual memory. Cognition and Emotion, 8, 503-514.

Hertel, P. T., & Milan, S. (1994). Depressive deficits in recognition: Dissociation of recollection and familiarity. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 736-742.

Hertel, P. T. (1994). Depressive deficits in word identification and recall. Cognition and Emotion, 8, 313-327.

Hertel, P. T. (1994). Depressive deficits in memory:Implications of research and theory for memory improvement following traumatic brain injury. NeuroRehabilitation, 4, 143-150.

Miller, W. R., Hertel, P., Saucedo, C., & Hester, R. K.(1994). Effects of alcohol and expectancy upon episodic memory in individuals reporting alcoholic blackouts. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 2, 161-166.

Hertel, P. T. (1993). Implications of external memory for investigations of mind. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 7, 665-674.

Hertel, P. T., & Rude, S. R. (1991b). Recalling in a state of natural or experimental depression.Cognitive Therapy and Research, 15, 103-127.

Hertel, P. T., & Rude, S. S. (1991a). Depressive deficits in memory:Focusing attention improves subsequent recall.Journal of Experimental Psychology:General, 120, 301-309.

Hertel, P. T., & Hardin, T. S. (1990). Remembering with and without awareness in a depressed mood:Evidence of deficits in initiative. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 119, 45-59.

Hertel, P. T. (1989). The generation effect:A reflection of cognitive effort? Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 27, 541-544.

Anooshian, L. J., Mammarella, S. L., & Hertel, P. T. (1989). Adult age differences in knowledge of retrieval cues. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 29, 39-52.

Hertel, P. T., & Narvaez, A. (1986). Confusing memories for verbal and nonverbal communication. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology: Attitudes and Social Cognition, 50, 474-481.

Hertel, P. T., Anooshian, L. J., & Ashbrook, P. W. (1986). The accuracy of beliefs about retrieval cues. Memory & Cognition, 14, 265-269.

Anooshian, L. J., Ashbrook, P., & Hertel, P. T. (1985).Self-esteem and beliefs about memory in environmentally stable and relocated students. Journal of Research in Personality, 19, 457-471.

Hertel, P. T. (1985). Isolation and adaptation in passage memory. Discourse Processes, 8, 75-90.

Boggiano, A. K., & Hertel, P. T. (1983). Bonuses and bribes:Mood effects in memory. Social Cognition, 2, 49-61.

Hertel, P. T. (1982). Remembering reactions and facts: The influence of subsequent information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 8, 513-529.

Hertel, P. T., Cosden, M., & Johnson, P. J. (1980). Passage recall: Schema change and cognitive flexibility. Journal of Educational Psychology, 72, 133-140.

Tyler, S. W., Hertel, P. T., McCallum, M. C., & Ellis, H. C. (1979). Cognitive effort and memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Human Learning and Memory, 5, 607-617.

Hertel, P. T., & Ellis, H. C. (1979). Constructive memory for bizarre and sensible sentences. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 5, 386-394.

Wegner, D. M., Guiliano, T. & Hertel, P. T. (1985).Cognitive interdependence in close relationships.In W. J. Ickes (Ed.), Compatible and incompatible relationships (pp. 253-276), New York:Springer-Verlag.

Hertel, P. T. (1988).Monitoring external memory.In M. Gruneberg, P. Morris, & R. Sykes (Eds.), Practical aspects of memory: Current research and issues. London:Wiley.

Hertel, P. T. (1992).Improving mood and memory through automatic and controlled procedures of mind. In D. Herrmann, H. Weingartner, A. Searleman, & C. McEvoy (Eds.), Memory improvement:Implications for memory theory (pp. 47-65).New York:Springer-Verlag.

Ellis, H. C., & Hertel, P. T. (1993). Cognition, emotion, and memory:Some applications and issues. In C. Izawa (Ed.), Cognitive psychology applied (pp. 199-215), New York:Erlbaum.

Hertel, P. T. (1996).Practical aspects of emotion and memory. In D. Herrmann, C. McEvoy,C. Herzog, P. T. Hertel, & M. K. Johnson (Eds.), Basic and applied memory research: Theory in context (pp. 317-336).Mahwah, NJ:Erlbaum.

Parrott, W. G., & Hertel, P. T. (1999). Research methods in cognition and emotion. In T. Dalgleish & M. Power (Eds.), The handbook of cognition and emotion (pp. 61-81).Chichester:Wiley.

Hertel, P. T. (2000). The cognitive-initiative account of depression-related impairments in memory.In D. Medin (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (vol. 39, pp. 47-71). New York: Academic Press.

Hertel, P. T., & Meiser, T. (2000).Capacity and procedural accounts of impaired memory in depression. In U. von Hecker, S. Dutke, & G. Sedek (Eds.),Generative mental processes and cognitive resources:Integrative research on adaptation and control (pp. 283-308).Dordrecht, The Netherlands:Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Hertel, P. T., (2000).Approche cognitive de la dépression:Pensées intrusives et contrôle de la pensée (G. Geschi, A. C., Juillerat, & M. Van der Linden, Trans.).Dans M. Van der Linden, J.-M. Danion, & A. Agniel (Eds.), La psychopathologie:Une approche cognitive et neuropsychologique (pp. 161-172). Marseille: Solal.

Hertel, P. T. (2004). Memory for emotional and nonemotional events in depression: A question of habit? In D. Reisberg & P. Hertel (Eds.), Memory and emotion (pp. 186-216). New York: Oxford University Press.

Hertel, P. T. (2004). Habits of thought produce memory biases in anxiety and depression. In J. Yiend (Ed.), Cognition, emotion, and psychopathology (pp. 109-129).Cambridge, UK:Cambridge University Press.

Hertel, P. T. (2009). Memory processes. In R. E. Ingram (Ed.), The international encyclopedia of depression (pp. 383-387). New York: Wiley.

Hertel, P. T. (2009). Dysphoria. In D. Sander & K. R. Scherer (Eds.), The Oxford companion to emotion and the affective sciences. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hertel, P. (2014). Cognition in emotional disorders:  An abundance of habit and a dearth of control. In S. Lindsay, C. Kelley, A. Yonelinas, & H. Roediger (Eds.) Remembering: Attributions, Processes, and Control in Human Memory: Essays in Honour of Larry L. Jacoby (pp. 322-335), New York, Springer.

Herrmann, D., McEvoy, C., Herzog, C., & Hertel, P., & Johnson, M. (1996). Basic and applied memory research:Theory in context. Mahwah, NJ:Erlbaum.

Herrmann, D., McEvoy, C., Herzog, C., & Hertel, P., & Johnson, M. (1996). Basic and applied memory research: Practical applications. Mahwah, NJ:Erlbaum.

Hertel, P. T. (Ed.). (2002). Cognitive biases in anxiety and depression [Special issue]. Cognition and Emotion, 16 (3).

Reisberg, D., & Hertel, P. (2004). Memory and emotion. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hertel, P. T. (Ed.) (2006). Interpretive biases and ruminative thought: Experimental evidence and clinical implications [Special issue]. Behavior Therapy, 37(3).

Hertel, P. T. (Ed.) (2010). Current directions at the juncture of clinical and cognitive science. [Special issue]. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24 (3).

De Raedt, R., Hertel, P., & Watkins, P. (2015). Mechanisms of repetitive thinking [Special Section]. Clinical Psychological Science, 3(4).

[Editor in Chief, Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 2016 - 2020]

Electronic reprints are provided to ensure timely dissemination of scientific information and are for individual, noncommercial use only. All copyrights are retained by the respective copyright holders. These reprints may not be duplicated, distributed, or reposted without permission.

Current and Recent Members

Emily Crusius (2021)

Emily Crusius is a Psychology major who plans to study Clinical Psychology as a graduate. In her free time, she enjoys making art and hiking.


Julia Plante (2022)

Julia is majoring in Psychology and minoring in Chinese. Her passions include drawing, understanding languages and human thought, and weightlifting.

Will Price (2021)

Will is a Psychology major with a minor in Economics. He's interested in the science of behavior, the brain, the mind, and the advancement of mental health treatments. Will plans to continue his education as a Clinical Psychology graduate. If he's not in lab he's most likely listening to comfort music, skateboarding, or watching college football.

Pallavi Shamapant (2020)

Pallavi was a neuroscience major and is on her way to becoming a Physician's Assistant.


Former Members

2019-1983 Former Lab Members
Name   Year
Jessica Hernandez, Paola Herrera, Pallavi Shampant, Rebecca Sanchez   2019
Chase Acuff   2018
Ashley Ogilvie, Samantha Wilkinson   2017
Julia Cottle, Kristy Hamilton PhD, Amaris Maydon, and Sara Touchstone   2016
Tarryn Pollard   2015
Nupur Agrawal, Jeffrey Hayes, MD, and Amani Piers   2014
Alex Barrionuevo, Jackie Bowes, Jonathan Gallegos, PhD, and Olivia Hunt    2013
Chiara Ferrari, Molly Holmes, MS, Thuy Anh Ngo, PhD, and Rachel Olson        2012
Amanda Benbow, PhD, and Elizabeth Stephens, PhD    2011
Amy Braid, MLIS, Ellen Dahl, Dpt, Megan Hughes, MD, Allison Levy       2010
Sara Champlin, PhD, PhD, Daniel Large, PhD, and Elaina Vasquez   2009
Ahra Cho, Leda McDaniel, DPT, and Casey Strickland, PhD   2008
Eric Robinson, PhD   2007
Rebecca Grider, MS, Amy Mahan, PhD, and Emily Stanley, PhD   2006
Lyla El-Messidi, PhD, Allison Jessee, PhD, and Cari Zimmerman, PhD   2005
Brett Munjas, MS, and K-Lee Patterson, PhD   2004
Faith Brozovich, PhD, and Gina Calcaterra, MA   2003
Melissa Gerstle, PhD   2002
Kathy Kintner, Demitra & Samanthe Peterson, and Frank Tamborello, PhD    2001
Ajay Satpute, PhD, Johanna Bick, PhD, and Suzanne Bick   2000
Stephanie Lee, MA   1999
Colleen Parks, PhD   1998
Doug Brown and Buck Holden (Bug and Duck)   1997
Annemarie Southwell and Cindy Wang   1996
Pete Gautier, Sean Hurley, PhD, and Amy Wiseman, PhD   1994
Carrie Dodrill, PhD, Alicia Knoedler, PhD, and Stephanie Milan, PhD   1992
Patti Boulanger and Meg Johnson   1991
Brian Burrell, MA      1990
Jim Debner, PhD   1989
Tammy Hardin and Elaine Reese, PhD   1987
Alice Narvaez, PhD, and Barbara Spezia    1983


Fall 2019 Hertel group photo of five students
Fall 2019 Lab Members

Nabeel Gaber, Will Price, Ruth Varner, Emily Crucius, Jessica Hernandez

Photo of six members of the 2019 Hertel Cognition Lab.

Spring 2019 Lab Members

Front:  Mariale Torres (2020), Pallavi Shamapant (2019) 
Back:  Eliza Poppe (2020), Julia Reyes (2020), Becky Sanchez (2019), Jessica Hernandez (2019)

Outdoor photo of the four female members of the 2016 Hertel Cognition Lab.

2016 Lab Members

Julia Cottle, Kristy Hamilton PhD, Amaris Maydon, and Sara Touchstone


Department of Psychology
Trinity University, 1 Trinity Place, San Antonio, TX 78212, USA

Voice:  210 999 8380 | Fax:  210 999 8386


Investigations of memory processes particularly relevant to emotional disorders