Publications by Paula Hertel, Ph.D.

See more publications and works by Paula Hertel on Trinity's Digital Commons.

Journal Articles

Hertel, P. T., Wahlheim, C. N., Price, W. A., Crusius, E. M., & Patino, C. L. (2023). Stuck in the past? Rumination-related memory integration.  Behaviour Research and Therapy, 163, 104287.

Hertel, P., Acuff, M. C., Hernandez, J., & Poppe, E. (2022).  Challenging depressive beliefs: Habitual and recollective components of stability or change. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 76, 101742.

Perlman, B., Mor, N., Jacobinski, Y. W., Zakon, A. D., Avirbach, N., & Hertel, P. (2021). Inferences training affects memory, rumination, and mood. Clinical Psychological Science, 10, 161-174.

Hertel, P., Herrera, P., & Shamapant, P. (2021).  Rumination: Practicing retrieval of autobiographical memories. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 45, 858-868

Vrijsen, J. N., Dainer-Best, J., Witcraft, S. M., Hertel, P. T., Beevers, C. G., Becker, E. S., & Smits, J. A. J. (2019). Effect of cognitive bias modification-memory on depressive symptoms and autobiographical memory: Two independent studies in high-ruminating and dysphoric samples. Cognition and Emotion, 33, 288-304.

Daches, S., Mor, N., & Hertel, P. (2019). Training to inhibit the negative affects subsequent rumination and memory. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 43, 1018-1027.

Hertel, P., Maydon, A., Ogilvie, A., & Mor, N. (2018). Ruminators (unlike others) fail to show suppression-induced forgetting on indirect tests of memory.  Clinical Psychological Science, 6, 872-881.

Hertel, P., Maydon, A., Cottle, J., & Vrijsen, J. (2017). Cognitive bias modification: Retrieval practice to simulate and oppose ruminative memory biases. Clinical Psychological Science, 5, 122-130.DOI: 10.1177/2167702616649366

Sacchet, M, Levy, B., Hamilton, J., Maksimovskiy, A., Hertel, P, …Gotlib, I. H. (2017). Cognitive and neural consequences of memory suppression in Major Depressive Disorder. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience, 17, 77-93.

Hamilton, K. A., McIntyre, K. P., & Hertel, P. T. (2016). Judging knowledge in the digital age: The role of external-memory organization. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 30, 1080-1087.

Vrijsen, J. N., Hertel, P. T., & Becker, E. S. (2016). Practicing emotionally biased retrieval affects mood and establishes biased recall a week later. Cognitive Therapy and Research, DOI: 10.1007/s10608-016-9789-6

Grol, M., Hertel, P. T., Koster, E. H. W., & De Raedt, R. (2015). The effects of rumination induction on attentional breadth for self-related information. Clinical Psychological Science, 3, 607-618. DOI: 10.1177/2167702614566814

Daches, S., Mor, N, & Hertel, P. (2015). Rumination: Cognitive consequences of training to inhibit the negative. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2015.01.010. 

Hertel, P. T., & Hayes, J. A. (2015). Distracted by cues for suppressed memories. Psychological Science. 26, 775-783.

De Raedt, R., Hertel, P., & Watkins, P. (2015). Mechanisms of repetitive thinking [Special Section]. Clinical Psychological Science, 3, 568-573.

Mor, N., Hertel, P. T., Ngo, T. A., Shcahar, T., & Redak, S. (2014). Interpretation bias characterizes trait rumination. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 4, 57-73.

Hertel, P. T., Mor, N., Ferrari, C., Hunt, O., & Agrawal, N. (2014). Looking on the dark side: Rumination and cognitive bias modification. Clinical Psychological Science. 2, 714-726.

Stephens, E., Braid, A., & Hertel, P. T. (2013). Suppression-induced reduction in the specificity of autobiographical memory. Clinical Psychological Science, 1, 163-169.

Hertel, P. T., Holmes, M., & Benbow, A. (2013). Interpretive habit is strengthened by cognitive bias modification. Memory, 7, 737-746.

Hertel, P. T., Large, D., Stück, E. D., & Levy, A. (2012). Suppression-induced forgetting on a free-association test. Memory, 20, 100-109.

Hertel, P. T., Benbow, A. A., & Geraerts, E. (2012). Brooding deficits in memory: Focusing attention improves subsequent recall. Cognition and Emotion, 26, 1516-1525.

Tran, T., Hertel, P. T., & Joormann, J. (2011). Cognitive bias modification: Induced interpretive biases affect memory. Emotion, 11, 145-152.

Hertel, P. T., Vasquez, E., Benbow, A., & Hughes, M. (2011). Recollection is impaired by the modification of interpretation bias. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 120, 902-910.

Hertel, P. T., & Mathews, A. (2011). Cognitive bias modification:  Past perspectives, current findings, and future applications. Perspectives on Psychological Science. 6, 521-536.

Hertel, P. T., & McDaniel, L. (2010). The suppressive power of positive thinking: Aiding suppression-induced forgetting in repressive coping. Cognition and Emotion, 24, 1239-1249.

Hertel, P. T., & Brozovich, F. (2010). Cognitive Habits and Memory Distortions in Anxiety and Depression. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19, 155-160.

LeMoult, J., Hertel, P. T., & Joormann, J. (2010). Training the forgetting of negative material: The role of active suppression and the relation to stress reactivity. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24, 365-375.

Salemink, E., Hertel, P., & Mackintosh, B. (2010). Interpretation training influences memory for prior interpretations. Emotion, 10, 903-910.

Joorman, J., Hertel, P. T., LeMoult, J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2009). Training forgetting of negative material in depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118, 34-43.

Hertel, P. T., & Mahan, A. (2008). Depression-related differences in learning and forgetting responses to unrelated cues. Acta Psychologica, 127, 636-644.

Hertel, P. T., Brozovich, F., Joormann, J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2008). Biases in interpretation andmemory in Generalized Social Phobia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117, 278-288.

Hertel, P. T. (2007). Impairments in inhibition or cognitive control in psychological disorders. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 12, 149-153.

Hertel, P. T., & El-Messidi, L. (2006). Am I blue? Depressed mood and the consequences of self focus for the interpretation and recall of ambiguous words. Behavior Therapy, 37, 259-268.

Hertel, P. T., & Calcaterra, G. (2005). Intentional forgetting benefits from thought substitution. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12, 484-489.

Joormann, J., Hertel, P. T., Brosovich, F., & Gotlib, I. (2005). Remembering the good, forgetting the bad: Intentional forgetting of emotional material in depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 640-648.

Hertel, P. T., Mathews, A., Peterson, S., & Kintner, K. (2003). Transfer of training emotionally biased interpretations. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 17, 775-784.

Hertel, P.T., & Gerstle, M. (2003). Depressive deficits in forgetting. Psychological Science,14, 573-578.

Hertel, P. T., & Parks, C. (2002). Emotional episodes facilitate word recall.Cognition and Emotion, 16, 685-694.

Rude, S. S., Hertel, P. T., Jarrold, W., Covich, J., & Hedlund, S. (1999). Remembering to remember: A difficulty for depressed individuals? Cognition and Emotion, 13, 267-276.

Hertel, P. T. (1998). Relation between rumination and impaired memory in dysphoric moods.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 166-172.

Hertel, P. T. (1997). On the contribution of deficient cognitive control to memory impairment in depression. Cognition and Emotion, 11, 569-583.

Hertel, P. T., & Knoedler, A. J. (1996). Solving problems by analogy:The benefits and detriments of hints and depressed moods. Memory & Cognition, 24, 16-25.

Hertel, P. T.(1994). Depression and memory:Are impairments remediable by attentional control? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 3, 190-193.

Anooshian, L. J., & Hertel, P. T. (1994). Emotionality in free recall:A case of language specificity in bilingual memory. Cognition and Emotion, 8, 503-514.

Hertel, P. T., & Milan, S. (1994). Depressive deficits in recognition: Dissociation of recollection and familiarity. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 736-742.

Hertel, P. T. (1994). Depressive deficits in word identification and recall. Cognition and Emotion, 8, 313-327.

Hertel, P. T. (1994). Depressive deficits in memory:Implications of research and theory for memory improvement following traumatic brain injury. NeuroRehabilitation, 4, 143-150.

Miller, W. R., Hertel, P., Saucedo, C., & Hester, R. K.(1994). Effects of alcohol and expectancy upon episodic memory in individuals reporting alcoholic blackouts. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 2, 161-166.

Hertel, P. T. (1993). Implications of external memory for investigations of mind. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 7, 665-674.

Hertel, P. T., & Rude, S. R. (1991b). Recalling in a state of natural or experimental depression.Cognitive Therapy and Research, 15, 103-127.

Hertel, P. T., & Rude, S. S. (1991a). Depressive deficits in memory:Focusing attention improves subsequent recall.Journal of Experimental Psychology:General, 120, 301-309.

Hertel, P. T., & Hardin, T. S. (1990). Remembering with and without awareness in a depressed mood:Evidence of deficits in initiative. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 119, 45-59.

Hertel, P. T. (1989). The generation effect:A reflection of cognitive effort? Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 27, 541-544.

Anooshian, L. J., Mammarella, S. L., & Hertel, P. T. (1989). Adult age differences in knowledge of retrieval cues. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 29, 39-52.

Hertel, P. T., & Narvaez, A. (1986). Confusing memories for verbal and nonverbal communication. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology: Attitudes and Social Cognition, 50, 474-481.

Hertel, P. T., Anooshian, L. J., & Ashbrook, P. W. (1986). The accuracy of beliefs about retrieval cues. Memory & Cognition, 14, 265-269.

Anooshian, L. J., Ashbrook, P., & Hertel, P. T. (1985).Self-esteem and beliefs about memory in environmentally stable and relocated students. Journal of Research in Personality, 19, 457-471.

Hertel, P. T. (1985). Isolation and adaptation in passage memory. Discourse Processes, 8, 75-90.

Boggiano, A. K., & Hertel, P. T. (1983). Bonuses and bribes:Mood effects in memory. Social Cognition, 2, 49-61.

Hertel, P. T. (1982). Remembering reactions and facts: The influence of subsequent information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 8, 513-529.

Hertel, P. T., Cosden, M., & Johnson, P. J. (1980). Passage recall: Schema change and cognitive flexibility. Journal of Educational Psychology, 72, 133-140.

Tyler, S. W., Hertel, P. T., McCallum, M. C., & Ellis, H. C. (1979). Cognitive effort and memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Human Learning and Memory, 5, 607-617.

Hertel, P. T., & Ellis, H. C. (1979). Constructive memory for bizarre and sensible sentences. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 5, 386-394.

Chapters and Reviews

Hertel, P. T. (2020). Editors cause academic forgetting: A reply to the Commentary by Berntsen and Rubin (2020). Journal of Applied Research on Memory and Cognition, 9, 58-59.

Hertel, P. (2014). Cognition in emotional disorders:  An abundance of habit and a dearth of control. In S. Lindsay, C. Kelley, A. Yonelinas, & H. Roediger (Eds.) Remembering: Attributions, Processes, and Control in Human Memory: Essays in Honour of Larry L. Jacoby (pp. 322-335), New York, Springer.

Hertel, P. T. (2009). Memory processes. In R. E. Ingram (Ed.), The international encyclopedia of depression (pp. 383-387). New York: Wiley.

Hertel, P. T. (2009). Dysphoria. In D. Sander & K. R. Scherer (Eds.), The Oxford companion to emotion and the affective sciences. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hertel, P. T. (2004). Memory for emotional and nonemotional events in depression: A question of habit? In D. Reisberg & P. Hertel (Eds.), Memory and emotion (pp. 186-216). New York: Oxford University Press.

Hertel, P. T. (2004). Habits of thought produce memory biases in anxiety and depression. In J. Yiend (Ed.), Cognition, emotion, and psychopathology (pp. 109-129).Cambridge, UK:Cambridge University Press.

Hertel, P. T. (2000). The cognitive-initiative account of depression-related impairments in memory.In D. Medin (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (vol. 39, pp. 47-71). New York: Academic Press.

Hertel, P. T., & Meiser, T. (2000).Capacity and procedural accounts of impaired memory in depression. In U. von Hecker, S. Dutke, & G. Sedek (Eds.),Generative mental processes and cognitive resources:Integrative research on adaptation and control (pp. 283-308).Dordrecht, The Netherlands:Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Hertel, P. T., (2000).Approche cognitive de la dépression:Pensées intrusives et contrôle de la pensée (G. Geschi, A. C., Juillerat, & M. Van der Linden, Trans.).Dans M. Van der Linden, J.-M. Danion, & A. Agniel (Eds.), La psychopathologie:Une approche cognitive et neuropsychologique (pp. 161-172). Marseille: Solal.

Parrott, W. G., & Hertel, P. T. (1999). Research methods in cognition and emotion. In T. Dalgleish & M. Power (Eds.), The handbook of cognition and emotion (pp. 61-81).Chichester:Wiley.

Hertel, P. T. (1996).Practical aspects of emotion and memory. In D. Herrmann, C. McEvoy,C. Herzog, P. T. Hertel, & M. K. Johnson (Eds.), Basic and applied memory research: Theory in context (pp. 317-336).Mahwah, NJ:Erlbaum.

Ellis, H. C., & Hertel, P. T. (1993). Cognition, emotion, and memory:Some applications and issues. In C. Izawa (Ed.), Cognitive psychology applied (pp. 199-215), New York:Erlbaum.

Hertel, P. T. (1992).Improving mood and memory through automatic and controlled procedures of mind. In D. Herrmann, H. Weingartner, A. Searleman, & C. McEvoy (Eds.), Memory improvement:Implications for memory theory (pp. 47-65).New York:Springer-Verlag.

Hertel, P. T. (1988).Monitoring external memory.In M. Gruneberg, P. Morris, & R. Sykes (Eds.), Practical aspects of memory: Current research and issues. London:Wiley.

Wegner, D. M., Guiliano, T. & Hertel, P. T. (1985).Cognitive interdependence in close relationships.In W. J. Ickes (Ed.), Compatible and incompatible relationships (pp. 253-276), New York:Springer-Verlag.

Edited Books and Special Issues

Hertel, P. (2020). Everyday challenges to the practice of desirable difficulties: Introduction to the Forum. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 9, 425-427. 

[Editor in Chief, Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 2016 - 2020]

De Raedt, R., Hertel, P., & Watkins, P. (2015). Mechanisms of repetitive thinking [Special Section]. Clinical Psychological Science, 3(4).

Hertel, P. T. (Ed.) (2010). Current directions at the juncture of clinical and cognitive science. [Special issue]. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24 (3).

Hertel, P. T. (Ed.) (2006). Interpretive biases and ruminative thought: Experimental evidence and clinical implications [Special issue]. Behavior Therapy, 37(3).

Reisberg, D., & Hertel, P. (2004). Memory and emotion. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hertel, P. T. (Ed.). (2002). Cognitive biases in anxiety and depression [Special issue]. Cognition and Emotion, 16 (3).

Herrmann, D., McEvoy, C., Herzog, C., & Hertel, P., & Johnson, M. (1996). Basic and applied memory research:Theory in context. Mahwah, NJ:Erlbaum.

Herrmann, D., McEvoy, C., Herzog, C., & Hertel, P., & Johnson, M. (1996). Basic and applied memory research: Practical applications. Mahwah, NJ:Erlbaum.


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Lab Members

Grant Kramer, Faith Padgett, Kristen Wilson2023
Christina Pantino2022
Emily Crucius and Will Price2021
Paola Herrera and Palavi Shamapant2020
Jessica Hernandez, Paola Herrera, Pallavi Shampant, Rebecca Sanchez2019
Chase Acuff2018
Ashley Ogilvie, DPT and Samantha Wilkinson, MPP2017
Julia Cottle, Kristy Hamilton Ph.D., Amaris Maydon, and Sara Touchstone 2016
Tarryn Pollard, MA2015
Nupur Agrawal, Jeffrey Hayes, MD, and Amani Piers, Ph.D.2014
Alex Barrionuevo, MS, Jackie Bowes, Jonathan Gallegos, Ph.D., and Olivia Hunt 2013
Chiara Ferrari, Molly Holmes, MS, Thuy Anh Ngo, Ph.D., and Rachel Olson     2012
Amanda Benbow, Ph.D., and Elizabeth Stephens, Ph.D.2011
Amy Braid, MLIS, Ellen Dahl, Dpt, Megan Hughes, MD, Allison Levy    2010
Sara Champlin, Ph.D., Daniel Large, Ph.D., and Elaina Vasquez2009
Ahra Cho, Leda McDaniel, DPT, and Casey Strickland, Ph.D.2008
Eric Robinson, Ph.D.2007
Rebecca Grider, MS, Amy Mahan, Ph.D., and Emily Stanley, Ph.D.2006
Lyla El-Messidi, Ph.D., Allison Jessee, Ph.D., and Cari Zimmerman, Ph.D.2005
Brett Munjas, MS, and Kathryn (K-Lee) Patterson, LPC2004
Faith Brozovich, Ph.D., and Gina Calcaterra, MA2003
Melissa Gerstle, Ph.D.2002
Kathy Kintner, Demitra & Samanthe Peterson, and Frank Tamborello, Ph.D. 2001
Ajay Satpute, Ph.D., Johanna Bick, Ph.D., and Suzanne Bick2000
Stephanie Lee, MA 1999
Colleen Parks, Ph.D.1998
Doug Brown and Buck Holden (Bug and Duck)1997
Annemarie Southwell and Cindy Wang1996
Jason Crain and Apryl Rogers, PhD1995
Pete Gautier, Sean Hurley, Ph.D., and Amy Wiseman, Ph.D.1994
Carrie Dodrill, Ph.D., Alicia Knoedler, Ph.D., and Stephanie Milan, Ph.D.1992
Patti Boulanger and Meg Johnson1991
Brian Burrell, MA   1990
Jim Debner, Ph.D.1989
Tammy Hardin and Elaine Reese, Ph.D.1987
Alice Narvaez, Ph.D., and Barbara Spezia 1983
photo of members of the Spring 2023 Hertel Lab

Spring 2023 Lab Members

Left to Right: Grant Kramer, Andrew Tyler, Madison Metzger, Natalie Cornejo, and Faith Padgett

Fall 2019 Hertel group photo of five students

Fall 2019 Lab Members

Left to Right: Nabeel Gaber, Will Price, Ruth Varner, Emily Crucius, Jessica Hernandez

Photo of six members of the 2019 Hertel Cognition Lab.

Spring 2019 Lab Members

Front:  Mariale Torres (2020), Pallavi Shamapant (2019) 
Back:  Eliza Poppe (2020), Julia Reyes (2020), Becky Sanchez (2019), Jessica Hernandez (2019)

Outdoor photo of the four female members of the 2016 Hertel Cognition Lab.

2016 Lab Members

Left to Right: Julia Cottle, Kristy Hamilton PhD, Amaris Maydon, and Sara Touchstone

Spring 2008 Hertel Cognition Lab group photo

Spring 2008 Lab Members


1995 Hertel Cognition Lab group 15 year reunion photo

1995 Lab Members 15-year reunion

Left to Right: Alums Jason Crain, and Apryl Rogers 




Paula Hertel, Ph.D.
Professor of Psychology
Department of Psychology
Trinity University, 1 Trinity Place, San Antonio, TX 78212, USA

Voice:  (210) 999-8380  | Email: